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Bryce, Viscount James

The Right Honourable
 The Viscount Bryce

Lord Bryce, left, with Andrew Carnegie; Bryce served as a trustee of the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland

Ambassador to the United States of America
In office
Monarch Edward VII, George V
Prime Minister Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, H. H. Asquith
Preceded by Sir Henry Mortimer Durand
Succeeded by Sir Cecil Spring Rice

Chief Secretary for Ireland
In office
10 December 1905 – 23 January 1907
Monarch Edward VII
Prime Minister Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
Preceded by Walter Long
Succeeded by Augustine Birrell

President of the Board of Trade
In office
28 May 1894 – 21 June 1895
Monarch Victoria
Prime Minister The Earl of Rosebery
Preceded by Anthony John Mundella
Succeeded by Charles Thomson Ritchie

Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
In office
18 August 1892 – 28 May 1894
Monarch Victoria
Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone
Preceded by The Duke of Rutland
Succeeded by The Lord Tweedmouth

Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
In office
7 February 1886 – 20 July 1885
Monarch Victoria
Prime Minister Gladstone
Preceded by Hon. Robert Bourke
Succeeded by Sir James Fergusson, Bt

Born 10 May 1838(1838-05-10)
Belfast, Ireland
Died 22 January 1922(1922-01-22) (aged 83)
Sidmouth, Devon, South West England
Political party Liberal
Alma mater University of Glasgow,
University of Oxford
Occupation Politician
Profession Academic

James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce OM, GCVO, PC, FRS, FBA (10 May 1838 – 22 January 1922) was a British academic, jurist, historian and Liberal politician.


[edit] Background and education

Bryce was born in Belfast, County Antrim, the son of James Bryce, LL.D., of Glasgow, by his wife Margaret, daughter of James Young. John Annan Bryce was his younger brother.[1] He was educated under his uncle Reuben John Bryce at the Belfast Academy,[citation needed] at Glasgow High School, the University of Glasgow, the University of Heidelberg and Trinity College, Oxford. He was elected a fellow of Oriel College, Oxford, in 1862, and called to the Bar, Lincoln's Inn, in 1867.[1]

[edit] Academic career

Bryce went to the bar and practised in London for a few years,[citation needed] but he was soon called back to Oxford as Regius Professor of Civil Law, a position he held between 1870 and 1893. From 1870 to 1875 he was also Professor of Jurisprudence at Owen's College, Manchester.[1] His reputation as an historian had been made as early as 1864 by his work on the Holy Roman Empire. In 1872 he travelled to Iceland to see the land of the Icelandic sagas as he was a great admirer of Njals saga. 1876, he climbed above the tree line on Mount Ararat and found a slab of hand-hewn timber, four feet long and five inches thick, which he claims was from Noah's Ark.[2]

[edit] Political career

Robert Baden-Powell, William Taft and James Bryce at the White House in 1912

Bryce was an ardent Liberal in politics, and in 1880 he was elected to parliament for the Tower Hamlets constituency in London.[1][3] In 1885 he was returned for South Aberdeen, where he was re-elected on succeeding occasions and remained a Member of Parliament until 1907.[1][4]

Bryce's intellectual distinction and political industry made him a valuable member of the Liberal Party. As soon as the late 1860s, he acted as Chairman of the Royal Commission on Secondary Education.[citation needed] In 1885 he was made Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs under William Ewart Gladstone, but he had to leave office after the electoral defeat the same year. In 1892 he joined Gladstone's last cabinet as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster[5] and was sworn of the Privy Council at the same time.[6] In 1894 he was appointed President of the Board of Trade in the new cabinet of Lord Rosebery,[7] but had to leave this office with that whole Liberal cabinet as soon as 1895.[1]

The Liberals were to remain out of office for the next ten years. In 1897, after a visit to South Africa, Bryce published a volume of Impressions of that country, which had considerable weight in Liberal circles when the Second Boer War was being discussed. He was one of the harshest critics of British repressive policy against Boer civilians in the South African partisan War. Taking the risk of being very unpopular for a certain moment, he condemned the systematic burning of farms and the imprisonment of old people, women and children in British concentration camps.[citation needed] Bryce was made Chief Secretary for Ireland in Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's cabinet in 1905.[1]

[edit] Ambassador to the United States

However, even this time Bryce's cabinet post was held only for a brief period, because as soon as February 1907 he was appointed British Ambassador to the United States of America.[8] He kept this diplomatic office until 1913 and was very efficient in strengthening the Anglo-American friendship. The German ambassador in Washington, Graf Heinrich von Bernstorff, later admitted how relieved he felt that Bryce was not his competitor for American sympathies during the World War period, when Bernstorff managed to secure the neutrality of the USA at least until 1917. As an author, Bryce was already well known in America. His work, The American Commonwealth (1888), was the first in which the institutions of the United States had been thoroughly discussed from the point of view of an historian and a constitutional lawyer, and it at once became a classic. Bryce made a lot of American friends in politics and science. One of the most prominent was US President Theodore Roosevelt.[citation needed]

[edit] First World War

After his retirement as ambassador and his return to Great Britain he was raised to the peerage as Viscount Bryce, of Dechmount in the County of Lanark, in 1914.[9] Thus he became a member of the House of Lords - that contested parliamentary body his own Liberal Party had bitterly fought the previous years, the powers of which had been curtailed in the Liberal Parliamentary Reform of 1911. Following the outbreak of the First World War, Lord Bryce was commissioned by Prime Minister H. H. Asquith to give the official Bryce Report on alleged German atrocities in Belgium. The report was published in 1915, and was damning of German behaviour against civilians; Lord Bryce's accounts were confirmed by Vernon Lyman Kellogg, director of the American Commission for Relief in Belgium, who told the New York Times that the German military enslaved hundreds of thousands of Belgian workers, and abused and maimed many of them in the process.[citation needed]

Bryce also strongly condemned the Armenian Genocide that took place in the Ottoman Empire mainly in the year 1915. Bryce was the first to speak on that subject in The House of Lords, in July 1915, and later - with the assistance of the historian Arnold J. Toynbee - he produced a documentary record of the massacres, published by the British government in 1916 as the Blue Book. In 1921, Lord Bryce wrote that the Armenian genocide had also claimed half of the population of Assyrians in the Ottoman Empire, because "similar cruelties" were perpetrated upon them.[citation needed]

During the last years of his life, Bryce served at the International Court at The Hague, supported the establishment of the League of Nations, and published a book about Modern Democracy in 1921 with quite critical remarks about post-war mass democracy; e.g. he strongly opposed the new right to vote for women.[citation needed]

[edit] Honours and other public appointments

Bryce reveived numerous academic honors from home and foreign universities. and he became a fellow of the Royal Society in 1894. His Studies in History and Jurisprudence (1901) and Studies in Contemporary Biography (1903) were republications of essays. In earlier life he was a notable mountain-climber, ascending Mount Ararat in 1876, and publishing a volume on Transcaucasia and Ararat in 1877; in 1899–1901 he was president of the Alpine Club. From his Caucasian journey he brought back a deep distrust of Ottoman rule in Asia Minor and a distinct sympathy for the Armenian people.[citation needed] In 1907 he was made a Member of the Order of Merit by King Edward VII.[10] He was also President of the British Academy from 1913 to 1917.[1]

[edit] Personal life

Lord Bryce married Elizabeth Marion, daughter of Thomas Ashton, in 1889. They had no children. He died on 22 January 1922, aged 83, in Sidmouth, Devon, on the last of his lifelong travels. The viscountcy died with him. Lady Bryce died in December 1939.[1] In 1965, the James Bryce Chair of Government (changed to Politics in 1970) was endowned in his honour at the University of Glasgow.

[edit] Publications

  • The Flora of the Island of Aran, 1859
  • The Holy Roman Empire, 1864
  • Report on the Condition of Education in Lancashire, 1867
  • The Trade Marks Registration Act, with Introduction and Notes on Trade Mark Law, 1877
  • Transcaucasia and Ararat, 1877
  • The American Commonwealth, 1888
  • Impressions of South Africa, 1897
  • Studies in History and Jurisprudence, 1901
  • Studies in Contemporary Biography, 1903
  • The Hindrances to Good Citizenship, 1909
  • South America: Observations and Impressions, 1912
  • University and Historical Addresses, 1913
  • Essays and Addresses on War, June 1918
  • Modern Democracies, 1921

[edit] Famous Quotations

  • "Patriotism consists not in waving the flag, but in striving that our country shall be righteous as well as strong."
  • "No government demands so much from the citizen as Democracy and none gives back so much."

[edit] Further reading

  • H. A. L. Fisher, James Bryce: Viscount Bryce of Dechmont, O.M., 2 vols. London resp. New York (1927).
  • John T. Seaman Jr., A Citizen of the World: The Life of James Bryce, London/New York (2006).

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i James Bryce, 1st and last Viscount Bryce
  2. James Bryce
  3. House of Commons: Tipperary South to Tyrone West
  4. House of Commons: Abbey to Amersham
  5. London Gazette: no. 26319, p. 4801, 23 August 1892.
  6. London Gazette: no. 26318, p. 4742, 19 August 1892.
  7. London Gazette: no. 26518, p. 3181, 1 June 1894.
  8. London Gazette: no. 27995, p. 1065, 15 February 1907.
  9. London Gazette: no. 28797, p. 810, 30 January 1914.
  10. London Gazette: no. 27994, p. 963, 12 February 1907.
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

[edit] External links

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Joseph d'Aguilar Samuda
Member of Parliament for Tower Hamlets
Constituency abolished
New constituency Member of Parliament for Aberdeen South
Succeeded by
George Birnie Esslemont
Political offices
Preceded by
Hon. Robert Bourke
Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
Succeeded by
Sir James Fergusson, Bt
Preceded by
The Duke of Rutland
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
Succeeded by
The Lord Tweedmouth
Preceded by
Anthony John Mundella
President of the Board of Trade
Succeeded by
Charles Thomson Ritchie
Preceded by
Walter Long
Chief Secretary for Ireland
Succeeded by
Augustine Birrell
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Sir Henry Mortimer Durand
British Ambassador to the United States
Succeeded by
Sir Cecil Spring Rice
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Viscount Bryce

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